Who is Satyendra Bose?

This year’s Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to two scientists who predicted the existence of the “God’s particle” boson. This particle is closely connected to an Indian Physicist, Satyendra Bose. Find the connection between Satyendra Bose and the God’s particle boson, and write your thoughts about Bose, boson, Bose – Einstein connection and this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics in the comments below.

The author of the best comment will win the book “Einstein’s Cosmos: How Albert Einstein’s Vision Transformed Our Understanding of Space and Time”  by Michio Kaku. Of course, after reading the book, you would understand how another Nobel Prize to three other scientists in Physics was also based on Bose’ work. The names of the next Top 10 comment authors will also be published.

Parents help, googling, reading related books: these are all allowed to prepare your comments, but the comments should be submitted by children in K-12 grades, living anywhere in United States. The winning comment needs to articulate the ideas well and should be more than a couple of unconnected sentences or a mere copy-paste of wikipedia.

The cut-off time for submission of the comments is October 18, Friday 11:59 PM. All comments will be released along with the the name of the prize winner and the names of the other top 10 comment authors on October 20, Sunday. Mathus Academy’s decision on the selection of the best comment and the other top 10 comments is final and not subject to challenge.

9 Responses
  1. Ansh Sawant

    Satyendra Nath Bose was born on January 1, 1894. He was a great Indian physicist and mathematician with a keen interest in literature, but it was in physics that he made his name for introducing the Higgs Boson particle and for the Bose-Einstein theory.
    The Nobel Prize was awarded in 2013 to Peter Higgs and Francois Englert for the discovery of the sub-atomic particle Higgs Boson. They both were also credited for theorizing the particle, along with their colleague Robert Brout, who died in 2011 before he could receive the award.
    The particle Higgs Boson is named after two people: Peter Higgs and Satyendra Bose. The first part, Higgs, is named after British physicist Peter Higgs for theorizing the particle Higgs Boson. The second part is named after the last name of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose for introducing the particle through his small, but significant article, the Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta.
    Bose and Einstein had many things in common. In 1924, Bose wrote the Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta, which was about two sub-atomic particles: Bosons, which were named after Satyendra Bose himself, and fermions, which were named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi. He sent his publication to Albert Einstein, after getting it rejected by a publication company, who was so impressed with it that he translated it into German and got it published in Zeitschrift fur Physik, one of the leading physics journals, under the name of Satyendra Nath Bose. Albert Einstein then adopted ideas of the article, and then wrote two more papers of his own.
    Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose happened to cross paths when Bose wrote the Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta, but they really started working together when Einstein took forward Bose’s ideas and then formed two seminal concepts in physics out of them. They were the Bose-Einstein condensate phenomenon and Bose-Einstein statistics.
    I feel that Satyendra Nath Bose was a great man who got underestimated by the world. There were more than ten people who got Nobel Prizes for their work in the areas that Bose also pioneered and progressed in. He did receive the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award in India, but I do not believe that was enough. When asked about the topic, though, Bose himself said, “I have got all the recognition I deserve”.

  2. Pranavh

    God’s Particle also called as “Higg’s Boson” or Boson, was named by Paul Dirac to recognize the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose for his research on Quantum or Particle Physics. Bose’s work laid the foundation for the Bose-Einstein Statistics which is the key for further discoveries and developments in particle physics.

    Bose-Einstein Statistics – is the theory developed in 1924 by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose, who explained that a collection of identical and indistinguishable particles can be distributed in a particular pattern.

    In 2013 Peter Higgs and Francois Englert won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical discovery that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles including that of Boson’s.

    References:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyendra_Nath_Bose
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bose%E2%80%93Einstein_statistics
    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2013/

  3. The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to two scientists named François Englert and Peter W. Higgs. The two scientists have been credited for discovering the Higgs boson particle. The Higgs boson particle itself is smaller than an atom. Scientists believe that the Higgs boson particle is the particle that gives matter the mass that it has. Matter itself is hard to describe other than being what makes up all the objects in the universe. Mass essentially measures “how much stuff” is in an object. These two scientists who were awarded the prize had discovered the existence of this particle during some tests at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. The Large Hadron Collider impacts particles at high speeds in attempts to produce new particles. The Higgs boson completes the Standard Model of Particle Physics which helps describe the building blocks of the universe.

    There’s a problem, though – although the Nobel Prize credits Peter W. Higgs and François Englert with discovering the Higgs boson particle, many people, especially those in India, are unhappy. It is believed that a man named Satyendra Nath Bose, born in Kolkata, India, first proposed the existence of the Higgs boson particle even before the discovery of it. The problem is that Satyendra Bose is not being credited with the discovery at all and is neglected. That’s even after all his work in classifying bosons, which are named after him.

    Satyendra Bose had also done a lot of work with Albert Einstein. They discovered another state of matter called the Bose-Einstein Condensate which is the state of matter in which matter has the least energy compared to the other states, Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Plasma. To get matter to this state, you have to drop the temperature to a little above zero degrees Kelvin – it’s called absolute zero.

    Satyendra Bose himself had sent a paper to Einstein describing two groups of the particles that were smaller than an item. He grouped them into bosons and fermions. He was never honored by the Nobel Prize academy. Supporters of Bose today believe that if India was an independent nation at the time, he would have gotten more recognition. At the time he wrote this paper, India was still under British rule.

    Does Satyendra Bose deserve credit for the Higgs boson discovery? After all, he is the first person known to have theorized it. That’s what some people are debating now, and perhaps he will get more credit for the particle in the future, after people find more evidence about his discoveries.

  4. Rohith Hegde

    Satyendra Bose discovered a subatomic particle called a ‘boson’, in the 1920’s. Peter Higgs later confirmed the existence of this. This particle fills in the missing information about a set of 21 different sub-atomic pieces of matter. Because of this, a boson gives all other materials their mass.
    Albert Einstein created the two theories of relativity. The first one, ‘general relativity’, states that an object’s mass is relative to the speed at which the object or the observer is travelling at. If an object goes faster, the masses increase. Because of this rule, things cannot travel faster than the spped of light. Light can achieve this velocity, because it has no mass at all.
    Also, a new state of matter, called a ‘Bose-Einstein condensate’ was discovered in 1995. This is a gas made of bosons, which is cooled to almost the lowest temperature possible. It then goes into a ‘quantum state’: a condition in which the properties of the gas are very warped.
    Albert Einstein and Bose are very closely related physicists because of their contributions to mass and weight in physics, and the discovery of the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  5. Samhitha Yeleti, Grade 3

    The Nobel Prize was given to Francois Englert and Peter W. Higgs for proving the existence of the God’s Particle boson which is named after Satyendra Nath Bose. Satyendra Nath Bose was born on January 1,1894. The Nobel Prize should have been awarded to Bose but it’s only awarded to people who are alive.He is also known for his work with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein condensate.

  6. Yash Gupta

    Satyendra Bose was an Indian physicist who is famous for writing the paper “ Planck’s law and the light quantum hypothesis,” and his other works regarding quantum mechanics. The term Boson was coined by Paul Dirac to remember Satyendra Bose and his contributions with The Bose-Einstein Statistics which described the 2 classes of elementary particles: the bosons and the fermions. Satyendra Bose was born in Calcutta at January 1st 1894. He was the eldest child in his family. He started schooling when he was 5. At his final year of secondary school he was admitted to the Hindu school after passing a qualifying test. In 1916 he joined The University of Calcutta as a research scholar. At age 20 Satyendra Bose married Ushabati and they had 9 children. Satyendra Bose knew many languages such as English, French, Bengali and more! Although Satyendra Bose was the one who actually discovered the boson most of the credit was given to Peter Higgs. Satyendra Bose was also never awarded the Nobel prize. He worked with many famous scientists such as Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In 1924-1925 Satyendra Bose and Einstein created a way for a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium known as Bose-Einstein Statistics. The Bose-Einstein Statistics also says how all bosons act as a superfluid when cooled just like helium 4. The elementary particles described also in the Bose-Einstein Statistics included 5 bosons (the four gauge bosons :γ · g · Z · W± and the Higgs boson: H0). Satyendra Bose also created a quantum mechanical version of the classical ideal gas known as Bose gas. By the end of Satyendra Bose’s lifetime he had written 24 papers and was famous for creating the Bose-Einstein Statistics, the Bose gas and the Bose-Einstein condensate. Satyendra Bose died on February 4th 1974 in Calcutta, India at the old age of 80 years.
    – Yash Gupta Princeton Junction, NJ

  7. Shyamala Subramanian, Grade 9, Edison, NJ

    Not many people know of the great accomplishments of Satyendra Nath Bose, the Indian scientist who, along with Peter Higgs, brought forth the discovery of the subatomic Higgs-Boson particle. Many Indians believe that Bose is not given the attention he deserved after the particle was discovered last year using an atom smasher in CERN, Switzerland. Scientists and researchers believe that Bose should have been given equal credit for the scientific basis along with Prof. Higgs from England. This year, Peter Higgs was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Francois Eglert.
    S.N.Bose was born and raised in Calcutta, and completed his basic school and college education in the Calcutta schools and colleges. With his science education, he wrote to Albert Einstein, and translated his ‘Relativity Theory. In turn, Einstein translated Bose’s paper into German, and submitted it to a local journal, and enabled its publication. This collaboration led to Bose’s travel to Europe, where their work led to fruitful scientific research, including Bose-Einstein statistics, and Bose-Einstein condensate. His work led to the prediction of particles with an integer spin (which was later named bosons), and it was confirmed in experiments many years later. Bose returned to India, and continued teaching physics, where he received many credits, and honorary degrees. He was named Padma Vibushan in 1954 by the Indian Government. His significant work in physics was well recognized by many physicists, and his work led to the recent discovery of the Higgs Boson particle, and eventually to the Nobel Prize in 2013 to Prof. Higgs.
    S.N. Bose died at age 80, in 1974, after establishing a wonderful career in Physics. He became a leader for others, and influenced future generations of students and scientists to study Physics. Though Bose’s work was as important as that of his counterpart Higgs, I believe that Bose didn’t receive the credit he deserved. But today, we can be proud that the foundation laid by Prof. Bose led to the towering achievements of those who built on his ideas.

  8. The “god particle” boson, mostly known as the Higgs Boson, is an elementary particle that led to the discovery of the Higgs Field. Particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs Field that is said to permeate all space. Satyendra Nath Bose first discovered the Higgs Boson in 1920, but at that time, the people said that there was no such thing. Only recently on July 2013, they found out that it was real, and gave him some credit for finding it first. They named the particles he found “Bosons” from Satyendra Nath Bose’s last name. At the time Satyendra Nath Bose was living, he had known and helped Albert Einstein. They both founded new things like the Bose – Einstein statistics, and the Bose – Einstein condensate. It’s really cool that Einstein had helped him to send his research in by Einstein himself translating all the research in German. Peter Higgs and Francois Englert both got the Nobel Prize in physics for discovering and making the Higgs Field. We wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for the Higgs Bosons. By knowing this, we could someday create something like a new species.

  9. Denesh Chandrahasan

    While presenting a lecture at the University of Dhaka on the theory of radiation and the ultraviolet catastrophe, Satyendra Nath Bose (a renowned Indian physics professor whose contributions resulted in the discovery of the Higgs Boson ) intended to show his students that the theory at that time was inadequate, because it predicted results not in compliance with experimental results. During this lecture, Bose actually committed an error in applying the theory, which unexpectedly gave a prediction that agreed with the experiment (he later adapted this lecture into a short article called Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta).‘
    The derivation of Planck’s formula during Bose’s time had not been to Planck’s satisfaction, and Einstein too was unhappy with it. Bose was able to derive the formula for radiation from Boltzmann’s statistics as a result of his error and wrote a scientific paper on it. The paper, and his method of deriving Planck’s radiation formula, was enthusiastically endorsed by Einstein who saw at once that Bose had removed a major objection against light quanta. This paper was only four pages long but it was highly significant. This tiny but important article brought about a great change in the life of Satyendra.
    Bose sent his paper to the philosophical magazine but to his disappointment this time his paper was turned down. Under these circumstances, Bose re-sent the paper to Albert Einstein in June 1924, with an appeal for his perusal and opinion. “Though a complete stranger to you, I do not feel any hesitation in making such a request,” he wrote.
    Einstein immediately recognized the significance of this paper; this paper was going to revolutionize his theory of photoelectric effect. Einstein himself translated Bose’s paper into German and sent it to a popular scientific journal (Zeitschrift für Physik) with his endorsement for publication. With his eminent and influential status, Einstein’s words carried much weight. It was promptly published, and immediately Bose shot into prominence.
    Bose’s “error” is now called Bose–Einstein statistics. This result derived by Bose laid the foundation of quantum statistics, as acknowledged by Einstein and Dirac. S. N. Bose’s work on particle statistics which clarified the behavior of photons (the particles of light in an enclosure) and opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory, was one of the top ten achievements of 20th century Indian science. In honor of Bose, scientist Paul Dirac coined a word called ‘Boson’ for those particles which obey Bose’s statistics. This was an extraordinary honor that brought recognition to Bose and India’s scientific prowess as a whole.
    Decades later, in 1964, a British scientist Peter Higgs would return from a walk in the Scottish mountains to tell his colleagues that he had just experienced his “one big idea”, which could hold a clue to how matter in the universe got its mass in the billionth of a second after the Big Bang.
    Higgs eventually came up with his theory of the Higgs boson, a boson that gives mass to all other subatomic particles that happen to interact with it in a ‘Higgs field’. The more they interact, the heavier they become; the ones that don’t interact don’t gather mass.
    As Wichita State University physics professor Nick Solomey says, “What excites me the most about the Higgs boson discovery is that we now know that there’s a Higgs field that’s present. And this Higgs field could be like the electromagnetic field, where we’re actually able to manipulate it to have control over magnetic and electromagnetic interactions. Can we now have some control over the interaction of mass?”
    All of this is thanks to the dedication and the enormous contributions that scientist Satyendra Nath Bose made to the field of physics, revolutionizing science as a whole.

    Denesh Chandrahasan
    11th Grade
    Montclair, CA